Saudi Arabia is surviving financial liberation thanks to the realism of Mohammed bin Salman: Morad al-Hattab:

By : Khaled Saad Zaghloul

Writer and geopolitologist, expert advisor in financial engineering, strategic investments and economic intelligence in France, Vice President of the Africa Commission of the C.E.S.I.C. – Cercle d’Étude de Sécurité Industrielle & Commerciale in Paris .

French citizen, the descendant of an old lineage of Muslim dignitaries. Whose name is Al hattab Al Ibrahimi Al Cherifi Al Idrissi, the descendant of the Prophet (SAWS), having fought and worked for France. Members of his family belonged to one of the five most decorated infantry units of the Second World War, 

Graduate of the Academy of Arts, Sciences and Letters, Knight of the Lafayette Monde Order, winner of the Lucien Caroubi Literary Prize, Prize for Peace and Tolerance for his book Les Chroniques d’un Buveur de Lune – Essai sur le Mal et l’Amour (ed. Albin Michel), awarded by Mr. Éric de Rothschild, and winner of the Franco-Russian Book Prize of the APMC (Action Privée en faveur du Monde Culturel)

Together with the writers Marek Halter and Jean-Luc Marion, he is the sponsor of the Saxum Project in Jerusalem, a Concert for Peace organized every year at the Garnelles Cultural Center in the presence of numerous political and artistic personalities. He is the author of several publications including 

– La finance mondiale : tout va exploser (Ed. Léo Scheer, November 2008) 

– France: a strange bankruptcy – Towards 1940 economic (Ed. Alpharès, May 2014)

– Les mécanismes de la crise (Ed. Perspectives libres, January 2015)

– Vladimir Putin – The new De Gaulle (Ed. Perspectives Libres, November 2018)

– Saif al-Islam Gaddafi – A dream of the future for Libya (Ed. Erick Bonnier, October 2019)

The war in Ukraine, which began on February 24, has highlighted a frontal opposition between the West and Russia. So much so that we have been speaking, for a month, of the risk of a Third World War, possibly a nuclear one. We have invited you for an interview on this subject, because you suggested us to understand, that there is a whole other issue behind this war in Ukraine. What can you tell us about this?

Indeed, the recent military operation in Ukraine led by Russia in Ukraine is gradually revealing cascading consequences, which testify to a struggle for influence that has been raging for more than a century. 

In 2014, it was Ukraine’s association agreement with Russia was torpedoed by the organization of a regime change, led by NATO and the United States, with the complicity of the EU and certain Israeli interests. This change of regime, known as “Euromaidan”, had resulted in the establishment in Kyiv, of a new regime that is ideologically and radically opposed to Russia. This new regime waged an unspoken war against the East of the country, and more generally a societal war against the Russian-speaking populations of Ukraine. 

Multiple armed provocations had then aimed to lead Russia to a military intervention that would have discredited it in the eyes of the world, at a time when Russia was not yet strong enough, economically, to afford it. Despite the unrest and the criminal fire in Odessa, entrapping dozens of pro-Russia militants (May 2, 2014), despite the sordid affair of flight MH17 (July 17, 2014), a kind of new “Lusitania coup”, despite the mercenaries and other “foreign advisers” multiplying their dirty operations against the Don Basin (Donbass), Russia then had the wisdom to “control” the situation by asymmetrical and covert methods, without yielding to NATO’s will to escalate. She only discreetly countered the hostile maneuvers, buying time that would then prove to be invaluable in ensuring Russia’s economic resilience. 

In 2022, this Russian economic resilience is largely acquired, the situation is different. It was following the relentless bombing and provocative preparation for a Ukrainian offensive against Donbass, that Russia finally intervened against Ukraine: an unfortunate State, hijacked by powerful globalist subversive forces, which were engaged in several types of activities that were becoming intolerable for Russia. In particular, research on biological weapons, sponsored by the United States and NATO, with potentially incalculable consequences against Russia, but also against Europe. [1] 

The Western press and chancelleries were then quick to see only Russia, as solely responsible for this situation, with some consummate hypocrisy. But in reality, “the aggressor is the one who forces his adversary to take up arms”, said Frederick II of Prussia. It had become necessary for Russia to intervene, but the real aggressor is a composite alliance between the United States, the United Kingdom, and certain Israeli interests, bringing NATO and the EU with them. 

However, it is a reversal of the world that we already announced two years ago, which is manifesting itself before our eyes. It can potentially put an end to more than a century of Anglo-American warmongering for oil, a century of occult domination over a large number of States of the world by abusive financial levers, the forefront of which: is the petrodollar.

Is the petrodollar therefore above all an abusive financial lever, used by the Anglo-Americans to dominate the world?

It is, but that means understanding the History of Saudi Arabia and other OPEC countries, as has historically been hostages to the Anglo-American oil games. 

Indeed, since the dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire, then the British redistricting of the Middle East after the First World War (resulting in the partition of 1932 delimiting Iraq and the new Saudi Arabia[2]), then the “handover” to the United States during the Second World War, ratified by the Quincy Pact of 1945 with King Ibn Saud (whose objections on Palestine were simply ignored), Saudi Arabia has never ceased to be hostage to Anglo-American oil geopolitics. But behind oil, it is the great financial maneuvers allowed by oil, which must be understood… 

By the 1960s, these great financial maneuvers of Wall Street were already acting directly against the strategic interests of the United States. They led to the disconnection between the dollar and gold, on August 15, 1971, in parallel with multiple intrigues against the States which held substantial gold reserves, or which produced it directly, in the first ranks of which were France and South Africa. [3] 

Then, these great maneuvers of the globalist circles, especially from the Bilderberg meeting in Saltsjöbaden (Sweden, January 1973), organized a “paradigm shift” to better control the world economy. This paradigm shift would remedy the demonetization of the dollar (disconnected from gold in August 1971), to strengthen the dollar again in another way, to strengthen the global financial balance of power in favor of the United States.

This was then the “scenario” of the “oil shocks”: a 400% increase in OPEC revenues announced in SaltsJöbaden by the American Walter Levy. Announced, not as a risk to be warded off, but from the angle of the necessary channeling of the flow of “petrodollars” which would soon surge, what the American Secretary of State Henry Kissinger later called the “recycling of petrodollars”. Henry Kissinger secretly engineered the terms of the Yom Kippur War against Israel, to create a situation that would officially and unjustly blame the oil shocks “on the Arabs” only. [4] This, while these shocks had been designed from Wall Street, from the City, and within internationalist financial circles: imposing their choices on the White House, and capable of achieving their goals by incapacitating President Nixon through Watergate (1972-1974), when he understood the role they were trying to get him to play. [5]

If I understand you correctly, the oil shocks were not the consequence of the Yom Kippur War, but they were previously wanted by the Anglo-American banks? For what purpose?

With a goal desiring above all to exclusively control the development of nations. These “oil shocks” had two major consequences. 

First, is the restraint of industrial development in both developed and emerging nations. In fact, for the majority of the countries of the world, this oil crisis did indeed mean the end of development, and the new inability to finance agricultural and industrial progress: the relinquishment of the hopes for a better life that had emerged during the 1960s.[6] 

Secondly, above all, the artificial support for the American dollar, whereas, disconnected from gold, it should have been worth only its paper value after 1971. Due to the domination of the post-war oil market by the American oil companies, the quotation of the oil prices was done in dollars since 1945. A sudden and brutal increase in the price of oil was, therefore, equivalent to an increase in the demand for American dollars to finance this essential oil. [7]  

The ruthlessly leonine influence of the United States on OPEC, from 1975, prevented the Europeans and the Japanese from trying to buy oil with their currencies, which nevertheless had a certain credit. This opposition of OPEC to any currency other than the dollar was never questioned, despite the great instabilities of the dollar from the 1970s.[8]  The world was therefore forced to permanently buy enormous quantities of dollars, to acquire the much-needed oil supplies for their economies. This arrangement proved to be fabulously profitable for the American dollar, for the financial institutions of New York, but also for the City of London which was already profiting from the dollar through hidden exemptions, allowing it to reign over the Eurodollar market. [9]

We, therefore, encouraged the oil shocks, to then organize the recycling of petrodollars, for the benefit above all of the Anglo-American megabanks? How did it go?

It was much more about serving the interests of its megabanks, rather than the interests of the United States or the United Kingdom. Against the strategic interests of their States, whose economies needed productive investments, the only concern of the Anglo-American megabanks of that time, which dominated the financial world, was therefore not to fight against this sudden rise in prices but to organize the “recycling” of the surpluses in American dollars of the OPEC oil-producing countries. 

This was the case, in particular thanks to secret agreements which were negotiated between 1973 and 1975, with the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA), resulting in February 1975 in an agreement to reinvest the gigantic Saudi oil revenues to finance the deficits of the American government. It was an Anglo-American financial agreement, or rather between Wall Street and the City (which was already the hub of the Eurobond or Eurodollar market), under the aegis of David Mulford: a Wall Street banker with strong connections to the City, who was sent to Saudi Arabia as SAMA’s main “investment adviser”. This is to “guide” the reinvestment of Saudi petrodollars towards the “good” banks, naturally, the anglo-American ones, which benefited from at least 60% of these reinvestments… 

These banks then hastened to generalize the prior logic of the eurodollars, by lending again these surpluses in dollars to the emerging countries which were the hardest hit by the crisis. This, while organized by the banking cartels, the fall in the price of raw materials to the detriment of these emerging countries, modestly called the “degradation of the terms of trade”, before the monetary shocks of the Thatcher-Volcker era, at the turn of the 1980s. This “scissors effect” generated a terrible debt crisis for emerging countries. [10]

Gold was replaced by oil. The petrodollar surpluses returned to the Anglo-American banks, which lent them again to the countries that had fallen victim to the crisis, to indebt them without any hope of getting out of this infernal spiral of indebtedness. This “informal Empire”, of a financial nature, generalized the old logic of the British Empire to the whole world, through the economic assassination of entire countries. [11] Reigning through endless debt, it was this Anglo-American “Empire of shame”, which generated the “hatred of the West”, as Jean Ziegler remarked it twice,[12] whereas this globalist financial reality remains today hidden from the eyes of Western peoples who were never really informed of this…

So we organized the financial domination of the Anglo-American banks, but officially, all this was “the fault of the Arabs”?

The consequence of all these financial intrigues was indeed to reinforce an overwhelming economic and financial domination of the United States and the United Kingdom, or rather of Wall Street and the City, over the entire world. Oil thus became the accelerator of a “New World Order”, of globalist inspiration, to the detriment of all the other countries of the world. The financial agreements of Bretton-Woods (1944) based on the gold dollar (gold standard), were replaced by an “oil standard”: the petrodollar, controlled by American finance allied to British finance… 

One has to be very naive to think that OPEC was the only one responsible for this situation. Because the oil issue had been a real vital necessity for the Anglo-Americans, they would have organized a change of regime or war within the hour. For reasons of global financial domination, Wall Street and the City wanted high oil prices, to increase their capacity to act tenfold and put the whole world in debt. But it was the only OPEC that bore the opprobrium, officially. 

It was a manipulation of the global economy of such terrifying magnitude, that it created an unprecedented global transfer of wealth to a small minority of internationalist financiers. This is Adam Smith’s so-called “invisible hand” of the market…[13] Petrodollars were then only used to refinance artificially created deficits, rather than to finance the necessary development of the whole world. As an indication of an occult intention, ideological institutions of globalism like the CFR could then evoke a certain degree of “controlled disintegration” of the world economy, constituting a “legitimate” objective for the 1980s.[14]  

The result was indeed a systematic demolition of the world economic development, in what could have had some virtue after the Second World War. [15] But all this, officially, by the “fault of the Arabs”, while Saudi Arabia was in reality under the total domination of the big American oil companies and Anglo-American finance… The assassination of the virtuous King of Arabia Faisal in 1975, testified that Arabia was hostage to the leonine Anglo-American oil geopolitics. 

And to this day, that hadn’t changed. We see it again when Arabia was pushed to support dangerous adventurism in Syria and Yemen after 2011, wanted by the Anglo-American-Israeli, according to an Obama-era strategy that was not good for anyone, not even for Israel in the long term. Arabia was the prisoner of struggles for external influence and found itself as a potential future victim of an Islamic State, whose artificial origins are well known to insiders… France had already noticed the creation of ex nihilo of this artificial terrorism, by the British, as early as 1930. [16]  Everything was then ready so that these new crises could be attributed, once again, exclusively “to the Arabs”.

However, a historic turning point had been taken by Arabia during the mandate of President Trump, what about that today?

Indeed, this is a historic shift for Arabia which has been made possible by the Trump era, and more generally by the emergence of a new multipolarity. We had already announced it, two years ago: another unforeseen World Order was emerging, in which the Arabia of Mohammed bin Salman seemed to be on the way to a successful turning point that was finally becoming possible. [17]

Indeed, two major events had the effect of profoundly changing the situation in the Middle East, giving rise to new hope: on the one hand, the Russian intervention in Syria in September 2015, and on the other hand, the victory of President Trump in the US presidential elections in November 2016. 

On the one hand, Russia and more discreetly, China, found themselves forced to get involved in the Middle East, rather than witnessing a situation that would project terrorist consequences as far as Central Asia, Russia, and China. 

On the other hand, American patriotic interests, deeply sickened by the reckless warmongering of the American Deep State, tried to take over the American state apparatus as much as they could in 2016-2020. This Deep State is made up of the historically documented alliance between the megabanks, the oil companies, and the American military-industrial complex,[18] 

being heavily influenced by a certain vision of Israeli interests, professed by a part of the American Jewish community playing with fire, and careless about putting Sabras (Israeli-born Jews) at unnecessary risk. [19]

It was these American patriots who tried to drive a different American foreign policy during the four years of President Trump’s presidency. Particularly for the Middle East, by renewing healthier ties with Saudi Arabia, whereas the former Obama presidency had, on the contrary, put pressure on Saudi Arabia to support warmongering adventurism, in reality, designed for Washington and Tel Aviv much more than in Riyadh. 

This change was understandable to insiders during Trump’s visit to Saudi Arabia in May 2017. It was from then on, that a great effort was made in Saudi Arabia, thanks to Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman: a huge anti-corruption operation was organized, both against financial abuses in Saudi Arabia and against the corruption of Islam by Wahhabi ideology. It was a major historical turning point for the United States since British oil influence allied with Wahhabism to control Arabia, in the wake of World War I. French Intelligence was the first to notice, as early as 1930, the analogy between the Wahhabis and the Bolsheviks: how false Muslims supported by the British passed themselves off as real Muslims, to subjugate the Muslims of Arabia and direct them toward terrorist logic, from that time. [20] 

This ideological and religious shift taken by Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman is major, which consists of Saudi Arabia returning to true Islam. And no longer a counter-Islam,[21] exploited by the British and then by the United States as far away as Central Asia, to fuel artificial terrorism there, which was no longer tolerable: because it discredited Saudi Arabia in the Middle East, but above all, because the two rising or rather resurgent powers, Russia and China, suffered the consequences of this artificial terrorism of Anglo-American origin, and subsidiarily also Israeli. The same struggle for influence took place in parallel in Israel, the United States, and England: between the partisans of an endless adventurism instrumentalizing terrorism, and the more realistic patriots, aware of the need to appease the Middle East. over the longer term.

Yet President Trump is no longer in business today, how can life now evolve against the United States of Joe Biden?

Let’s say that there are new solutions available to Saudi Arabia: a certain continuity of this new multipolarity which is necessary for Saudi Arabia, with Russia and China.

Despite the fraudulent theft of the American presidential elections of November 2020, which led to the ousting of President Trump by an unspoken subversive coup in the United States, Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman dared to continue the policy initiated by the United States of President Trump. The latter, who should still officially be President Trump, summed up the reality in his March 12, 2022 speech: “Together, we stand against some of the most sinister forces, entrenched interests, and most vicious adversaries in our world. people have ever seen. But it doesn’t matter how big or powerful these corrupt radicals are. You must never forget that this nation does not belong to them, this nation belongs to you. » 

It is a fair and realistic reading of this situation, which leads Mohammed bin Salman to take note of the confused and dangerous struggles for influence taking place in the United States and Israel, while at the same time a “new solution” was emerging with China and Russia. 

It is indeed the rising Eurasian power of China and Russia, that today allows Saudi Arabia to emerge from its former situation of being “hostage” to the Anglo-American oil and financial intrigues, from which Arabia was held prisoner for almost a century.

Indeed, only insiders had already realized, since 2015, that Russia had already virtually broken the Anglo-American petrodollar monopoly: by creating a St. Petersburg exchange denominating oil in rubles (and potentially in yuan). [22] At the same time, between 2014 and 2022, Russia and China had taken steps to create a transnational financial system competing with Anglo-American systems (notably the SWIFT system). To such an extent that in 2022, the situation was ripe to finally give back to the Western financial world, which had become abnormally decadent and predatory, including for the West itself.

In this context, the war in Ukraine is accelerating this process, and is this what will allow Arabia to free itself from the petrodollar?

Saudi Arabia’s recent economic agreements with China, and especially the recent military agreements with Russia, even before the recent Russian military operation in Ukraine, have completed this shift which has great historical significance for Saudi Arabia. 

Indeed, the reckless and brazen Western economic sanctions have just killed both the euro and the dollar: the euro, as a credible global reserve currency, and the petrodollar, as the dominant currency of the whole world for decades. 

Following the “freezing” of 300 billion dollars of Russian reserves placed in Western countries, Vladimir Putin, President of the Russian Federation announced an unprecedented retaliatory measure against these hostile acts against Russia: by imposing payment in rubles for energy purchases by these “hostile countries”, and by waiving settlements in the currencies of these countries that have been compromised. “Now everyone knows that commitments made in dollars or euros may not be fulfilled. In this context, delivering our products to the EU and the USA being paid in dollars, euros or certain other currencies no longer makes sense to us.”[23]

Concretely, from now on, imports of Russian gas or oil by Western countries can no longer be paid for either with dollars or with euros but must be mandatorily made in rubles or Chinese yuan. This decision could be imitated by other countries such as the BRICS or oil-producing Gulf countries, and then, the dollar could lose its global dominance, and the euro would collapse on its own since it was already being supported at the end arms by Russia and China since 2011…[24]

This is indeed what already seemed to be taking shape for months, with the negotiations between Saudi Arabia and China aimed at selling Saudi oil in yuan. [25] The deadweight loss of such a decision for the United States is estimated at $800 billion a year. This would mechanically spell the end of the subversive US of Biden, Wall Street, and the Deep State, using the corrupt EU of Ursula von der Leyen as an expendable vassal. Indeed, Joe Biden made no secret of it when, boldly, he announced that cutting off Russian gas would damage Europe, but that he was “ready to pay the price”, in reality, supported by his allies. The “Kissinger logic” revisited, in some way: as expected, as was true from the 1960s, it is indeed Europe that is being once again sacrificed and that will pay the price for the madness of the internationalist financiers…[26]

So, all this is a hope for Arabia, which will finally be able to emancipate itself from the crushing Anglo-American financial domination? What will have been the role of Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman?

The role of Mohammed bin Salman will have been crucial, thanks also to President Trump. 

This historic upheaval signifies the end of the excessive power of the United States, and the end of the international financial system inherited from the Second World War which gave them an abnormal monetary power. It will also mean the collapse of the domination of Western countries over the world, and as a potential collateral consequence: the collapse of the standard of living of their inhabitants in the end. 

This artificial destruction of the economic development of the West had already been hatched since the 1970s, and we see the outcome before our eyes. For the Western people and even for the peoples of the world, this is not positive in itself because the peoples are all victims of the same financial globalism. But blindness always comes at a price, and it is, all the same, a victory for the people, to see this financial internationalism suffering a defeat, confronted by a new competing internationalism: Eurasian internationalism, which was built in reaction to the many historical cases of abuse of Anglo-American internationalist finance, backed by the most reckless part of the Israeli leadership. 

In this context, Saudi Arabia, which the Deep State and the United States of Biden did everything to bully and humiliate after it was pushed into reckless choices during the Obama era, understood the message. [27] Faced with a dangerously diverted West, Crown Prince Mohammed Ben Salmane was able to seal new military cooperation agreements with Russia in good time while forging strong economic relations with China. It is a new world order that is emerging before our eyes, bringing hope to all the people of the world. And Arabia has been able to turn the corner in time, while the warmongering logic of the Obama-Biden era hoped very probably to “sacrifice” it in the long term. 

History will remember that Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman was able to save his country and his people, which opens up new possibilities for development than those that the Anglo-Americans have never been able to authorize for Arabia…

  [1] ENGDAHL, F. William : Pétrole, une guerre d’un siècle : L’ordre mondial anglo-américain, éd. Jean-Cyrille Godefroy, 2007, p.149-181.

[2] ZISCHKA Anton : La Guerre secrète pour le pétrole. Payot, 1934.

[3] JOVANOVIC, Pierre : 666. La planche à billets américaine qui va amener les banques à leur faillite et déclencher la grande révolte des peuples ». Editions Le Jardin des Livres, 2014.

[4] ENGDAHL, ibid.

[5] VILLEMAREST, Pierre : Exploits et bavures de l’espionnage américain : les espions du Président, l’O.S.S., la C.I.A., éd. Famot, 3 volumes, 1978.

[6] ENGDAHL, ibid, p.176.

[7] ENGDAHL, ibid, p.160.

[8] DENIZET, Jean : Le dollar. Histoire du système monétaire international depuis 1945. Éd. Fayard, 1985.

[9] LAURENT, Eric : La face cachée du Pétrole. Ed. Plon, 2006. 

[10] ENGDAHL, ibid.

[11] PERKINS, John : Les Confessions d’un assassin financier (éditions Alterre, 2005) ; L’Histoire secrète de l’Empire américain : Assassins financiers, chacals et la vérité sur la corruption à l’échelle mondiale (éditions Alterre, 2008).

[12] ZIEGLER, Jean : L’Empire de la honte, Éditions Fayard, 2005. La Haine de l’Occident, Éditions Fayard, 2008.

[13] Engdahl, ibid.

[14] Fred Hirsch et al.: Alternatives to Monetary Disorders. Council on Foreign Relations1980s project. McGraw-Hill, 1977, p.55.

[15] Engdahl, précité, p. 180.

[16] HAUTECLOCQUE, Xavier (de) : Le Turban Vert, Nouvelle Revue Critique, 1930 (réédition Energéïa, 2013).

[17] « Trump, Poutine, Xi Jinping, Boris Johnson et Mohammed ben Salmane : Un autre Ordre Mondial imprévu émerge. » (Saker / CVR, 22/5/2020). English: « Trump, Putin, Xi Jinping, Boris Johnson, and Mohammed bin Salman: A New, unpredicted World Order emerges” (Morad El HATTAB, CVR May 29, 2020).

[18] SCOTT, Peter Dale : L’État Profond américain : La finance, le pétrole, et la guerre perpétuelle, Éditions Demi-Lune, 2015.

[19] WALT, Stephen ; MEARSHEIMER, John J. : Le lobby pro-israélien et la politique étrangère américaine. Editions La Découverte, 2007. 

PIECZENIK, Steve : Steve Pieczenik TALKS : The Septembre of 2012 through The Septembre of 2014. Autoédité Pieczenik, 2014. Steve Pieczenik TALKS : Volume II : The Septembre of 2014 through The Septembre of 2015. Autoédité Pieczenik, 2015. 

FINKELSTEIN, Norman G. : L’Industrie de l’Holocauste – Réflexion sur l’exploitation de la souffrance des Juifs. Éditions La Fabrique, 2001.

SOLJENITSYNE, Alexandre : Deux siècles ensemble (tome 1 & 2, Fayard, 2002 & 2003). L’Erreur de l’Occident (1980). Réédition Cahiers Rouges, 2006.

[20] Hauteclocque, précité.

[21] VERNOCHET, Jean-Michel : Les Egarés : Le Wahhabisme est-il un contre Islam. Ed. Sigest, 2013.

[22] « La Russie démolit le monopole de Wall Street sur les prix du pétrole. » (F.W. Engdahl, NEO/RI, 19/11/2015).

[23] Russie en France @AmbRusFrance. 9:29 PM · 23/3/2022.

[24] « Historique ! Vers la fin de la domination du dollar ? » François Asselineau, UPR, 26/3/2022.

[25] « L’Arabie saoudite envisage d’accepter les yuans des Chinois pour son pétrole » L’Opinion / WSJ, 16/3/2022. « Achats de pétrole : la Chine et l’Arabie Saoudite veulent remplacer le roi dollar par le yuan » La Tribune, 16/3/2022.

[26] « Biden and EU make a deal to cut Europe’s reliance on Russian gas” Yahoo Finance, 25/3/2022. “Europe and the U.S. Make Ambitious Plans to Reduce Reliance on Russian Gas” New York Times, 25/3/2022.

[27] « Biden est il en train de perdre l’Arabie saoudite ? » F. William Engdahl, Saker – 6/9/2021

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