Arts & Culture

know more about the second oldest Islamic Survival monument in Egypt

Soheir Qansouh, Director General of the Antiquities of Ancient Egypt, said that the Rawda scale is the second oldest Islamic monument in Egypt , as it is the only one that has an integrated building, and it is the only one completely remaining from the measuring column, as it measures the water from the inside through the measuring column .

However, his work was canceled with the presence of the High Dam, which blocked floods from Egyptian lands, and became a tourist destination only, and many restorations were carried out during the Tulunid, Fatimid, Mamluk and Ottoman periods.

The Nile is linked to the life of Egyptians in all its forms since ancient times, as the Nile has been associated with determining both the form of political, economic and social life throughout the ages, so the flood was an important factor in their lives, and they were keen to put the measures of the Nile along the river, especially in the south, and the most famous mention of the Nile scale on the “Palermo Stone”, which dates back to the Fifth Dynasty, which is the oldest document recording the celebrations of festivals among the ancient Egyptians, and it is one of the ancient Egyptian artifacts. Water records were recorded on it from the height and levels of water.

The scale is a well dug into the ground in two levels. A spiral staircase rotates around its walls from the inside, and in the middle is the measuring column, and the well is connected to the river through 3 openings in different levels.

The Nilometer is considered the second oldest Islamic monument in Egypt, and the establishment of this scale dates back to the Abbasid era, specifically in the era of Caliph Al-Mutawakkil, in 861 AD (247 AH).

Qansouh indicated that the scale was built on 3 levels: the first level was rounded out of carved stone, the second level was in a square shape and the third was in a square shape, and the scale was connected to the Nile from the eastern side through 3 openings, and above these openings are pointed arches resting on columns built into the walls, with Cap crowns and bases, and in the middle of the well is an octagonal marble column topped by a Roman crown.

The water moves from south to north, and the water enters quietly inside the scale to be able to measure it, so the round shape was chosen, so that the water entered quietly from the eastern side into a circular building, until It settles down and the measurement process is completed.

And the second level was wider and the amount of water was greater, and all this was supported on a base of sycamore wood, this type of wood is known to be one of the materials that withstand water, and also in the event of shocks or earthquakes, wood can withstand shocks.

Qansouh added: The measuring column is the basis for the scale, and it is installed in the wooden base and tied to a wooden beam on the top decorated with inscriptions in Kufic script, and the length of the column is 19 cubits, marked by the measuring signs where when the water level reaches 16, the situation is stable, and when it reaches 14 Here he was a warning of an upcoming famine that must be prepared for, and in the event that it exceeds 16, the country must be prepared for the coming flood.

The work of this scale is attributed to the engineer Ahmed bin Muhammad bin Kathir Al-Farghani, who is from Uzbekistan, and the state of Uzbekistan built a bronze statue of this engineer next to the scale in his honor.

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