Input your search keywords and press Enter.

What we Know about Late King Abdelaziz’s journey to build the Saudi Nation

What we Know about Late King Abdelaziz's journey to build the Saudi Nation


More than sixty-eight years have passed since the death of King Abdulaziz bin Abdulrahman Al-Faisal Al Saud, founder of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, but his memory is still present to inspire numerous leaders and generations.


Late King Abdulaziz is the one who spent his life in the face of the challenges of life in the Arabian Peninsula, which was suffering more than eight decades ago under the weight of rivalry, fear, panic, and hardship, his sole goal was to establish a young state enjoying security, tranquility and abundant blessings.


Historians differed about the date of the birth of King Abdulaziz Al Saud, but many of them went to the sources of the historian Hashem bin Saeed Al-Naimi, who explained that King Abdulaziz was born in the city of Riyadh in 1876, according to what was mentioned in a historical volume among the 12 volumes printed by the King Abdulaziz House on his biography and personality.


Through this piece, Leaders MENA Magazine reviews the journey of the late King Abdulaziz in establishing the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on the occasion of the Kingdom’s 93rd  National Day.


King Abdul Aziz was born in the city of Riyadh, which is located in the belly of the Arabian Peninsula in Najd, 600 meters above sea level, It is a city that is deeply rooted in history, this is evidenced by the human presence that was found in it about 250 years ago, in addition to some ancient stone tools in some sites. The settlements dating back to the Neolithic period were concentrated in sites near the tributaries of Wadi Hanifa, and the areas surrounding Riyadh to the south, east, and west.

The oldest mention of the location of Riyadh in historical sources dates back to 715 BC, in the context of mentioning the city of Hajar, the capital of Al-Yamamah province, which included: Al-Arid, Al-Houta, Sudair, Al-Mahmal, Al-Kharj, and Al-Aflaj. However, “Hajar” lost its value in the Hijri tenth century and scattered to small villages such as Al-Oud, Al-Buniya, Ma’kal, Al-Sulai’a, and Jabra, some of which are still known to this day in the city of Riyadh.

Riyadh was subject to the rule of the first and second Saudi states and then returned to the rule of the third Saudi state at the hands of King Abdulaziz Al Saud. The Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, the twenty-fifth son of the founding king, assumed the Emirate of Riyadh twice after King Abdulaziz issued the system of princes and administrative councils.

It is no wonder that King Abdulaziz insists on restoring Riyadh, which is a historical extension of the path of fathers and grandfathers, where he was born and raised, and received from its scholars after his father, Imam Abdul Rahman bin Faisal Al Saud entrusted him to Judge Abdullah Al-Kharji to teach him the Holy Quran, reading and writing when he was seven years old.

At the age of ten, he received his education in Islamic jurisprudence and monotheism at the hands of Sheikh Abdullah bin Abdul Latif al-sheik, and in parallel with that, King Abdulaziz was learning horse riding and equestrian skills.

The personality of King Abdulaziz was greatly influenced by the personality of his father, Imam Abdul Rahman Al-Faisal, as he was a father, a teacher, a brother, and a friend of his son, as well as the personality of his mother, Princess Sarah Al-Sudairy, who was one of the most perfect women in mind and management.

Late King Abdulaziz paid love to his brothers (Khaled, Faisal, Fahd, Muhammad, Noura), but his relationship with Princess Noura was more intimate, she occupied a great place in himself as he was keen to visit her at her home daily.


King Abdulaziz had a strong, captivating personality, and a reverence that affected everyone who met him. On the other hand, he had a bright smiling image with cheerful glimpses, with what he was known for in his softness, humility, and fun, and his lack of pretentiousness to talk to his people and his flock, as well as his generosity and generosity with everyone, he was not a king rather, he was the head of a family, a lover of all, and a role model in his actions and behaviors.

The personality of King Abdulaziz has fascinated many intellectuals and historians in the world, including the Chinese historian Professor Yang Yanhong, who said about him: “King Abdulaziz was one of the geniuses who provided great services to their nations and homelands with mighty and tireless efforts.”


The Austrian Dr. Von Diesel, who visited the Kingdom in 1926, described King Abdulaziz as a genius, citing the saying: Ibn Saud succeeded in creating an empire whose area exceeded the sum of the areas of Germany, France, and Italy together after he was a leader who initially led only several men.


He added that the Late King Abdulaziz managed with their help to recapture Riyadh, the capital of his ancestors.

“You have no doubts that this man who does this has the right to be called a “genius.”, he stressed


King Abdulaziz was known for his great respect for scholars throughout his life, so he used to honor them in his council, as he (King Abdelaziz) believed in the value of science and scholars and their impact on life.


King Abdulaziz went through various events and stations in his life that were influential in building his unique personality, especially since he reached the age of fifteen or less, but these events contributed to refining his personality as he learned from them: patience, strength, perseverance, and courage.

Historians considered the departure of King Abdulaziz, with his father, Imam Abdul Rahman, and some members of his family from Riyadh in 1891, as the most difficult event in his life, as he left it at the age of 12, their first stop after Riyadh was the Yabreen oasis in Al-Ahsa, Bahrain until they moved to Kuwait and settled there for several years, during which King Abdulaziz remained attached to Riyadh, where he was born and raised, and were his aspirations and hopes grew.


When King Abdulaziz turned 20 while in Kuwait, in 1902 he went on a heroic journey with 40 men to Riyadh to enter a desert whose sand burned under the hot sun and they fasted. During Ramadan in the oasis of Yabreen in Al-Ahsa and celebrated in a place called “Abu Jafan”.

Along the way, King Abdulaziz Al Saud took the oasis of Yabreen as his headquarters to implement his plan to rebuild Riyadh. This oasis is located on the sandy shores of the Empty Quarter in the north, 160 miles south of Al-Ahsa, and 275 miles east of Riyadh. While walking, King Abdulaziz and his men passed by Haradh, one of the villages of Al-Ahsa.

On January 15, 1902, King Abdulaziz and his men arrived in the Al-Shaqib area, about an hour and a half’s walk from the city of Riyadh. King Abdulaziz succeeded in overturning the ancient era in Riyadh and ushered in a prosperous era in Najd after the people of Riyadh and its notables pledged allegiance to him in 1902 as the Prince of Najd and Imam of its people. Friday prayer in the courtyard of the Grand Mosque in Riyadh.  King Abdulaziz Al Saud was able to gather the diaspora of the country, restore security, and oppose the chaos that reigned in the Arabian Peninsula at the time through a long journey during which he spent long walks and meditations.

King Abdulaziz, with the love of the people, became the king of the country he decided to build and establish this system until it reached respectable positions in front of the Arab and Muslim nations and the whole world.  King Abdulaziz was interested in the development of the country, therefore he issued Royal Decree No. 2716 in 1932 to transfer the name of the state (Kingdom of Hejaz, Najd and its annexes) to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.



 Extensions of the Two Holy Mosques


At the beginning of the state organization, King Abdulaziz paid attention to the two holy mosques and their expansion, serving pilgrims and Umrah pilgrims, and opening schools, building hospitals, establishing villages, improving the soil, settling and digging the desert. irrigation water to support agriculture.  However, these efforts ran out of money to make it happen, which troubled King Abdulaziz’s thinking until one of his advisors suggested that he look for minerals underground.  King Abdulaziz


Of the desire to promote the country, in the fall of 1933, oil research began in some countries of the empire, but four years passed and the research did not give a positive and satisfactory result for the discovery of oil reserves, Experts decided to investigate the area around the well in an area called “Ain Jet”, where King Abdulaziz stopped there in 1902 on his way from Kuwait to Riyadh, and to their surprise, the presence of oil was 5000 meters underground.  The barren land came to life due to black gold, which transformed a desert gregarious with howling winds into a dynamic city full of workers, engineers, and oil exports.


 Attention to external and internal issues


King Abdulaziz’s interest in foreign affairs was equal to his interest in the country’s internal affairs, and he engaged in high-level diplomacy with all the countries of the world, considering the kingdom’s right to independence and choosing the nature of his relations. with countries without affecting its religious, civil, and cultural status, which made it a favorite of the leaders of various countries.




  Founding King Meeting with Roosevelt


King Abdulaziz tried to solve the country’s situation and ensure its recognition first with the neighboring Arab countries, then with other Arab and Muslim countries, and up to the countries of the world.  He concluded agreements with the Arab countries, the purpose of which was, on the one hand, to clarify the borders with those countries and to create an atmosphere of peace, security, and friendship with them, as well as diplomatic relations, which correspond to the interests of the Arab countries, on the other hand. with the countries of the world without limiting its principles.



 Shura and Democracy in the Era of King Abdulaziz


Later, the Egyptian writer and thinker Abbas Al-Akkad described the personality of King Abdulaziz, saying: “King Abdulaziz was stubborn to the strong, humble to the weak, but he listened to other opinions and when he was convinced, he returned to him because he held the truth and the Sharia as an imam and a ruler.”

King Abdulaziz died of a serious illness in Taif on November 9, 1953.  King Abdulaziz Al Saud died after traveling a long distance where he was the last to live and faced the greatest challenges, but he was left to the present generations and buried in the Oud Cemetery in the center of Riyadh.


Short link :